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What Makes A Male Fertile?

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For some couples, it is difficult to achieve pregnancy even though they have had frequent intercourse without using contraception. Male reproductive problems cause about one-third of all occurrences of infertility. Male fertility typically depends on the quality and amount of sperm produced. If there are few sperm discharged, or if they are of poor quality, getting pregnant will be challenging. Hormonal imbalance, obstructions preventing the sperm’s movement, genetic abnormalities, chronic health issues, and lifestyle choices are some of the significant factors that cause infertility in males. The male reproductive system produces, keeps, and transfers sperm. Sperm and a male sexual hormone are made in the two testicles. The testicles are present in the scrotum. When the sperm escapes from the testicles, it goes into the epididymis. [1, 2]

The sperm is released from the epididymis into another set of tubes, known as the vas deferens, just before ejaculation. Each vas deferens originates from the epididymis and travels to the pelvis behind the bladder. There, each vas deferens connects the ejaculatory duct to the seminal vesicle. Sperm fuse with fluid from the prostate and seminal vesicles when a man exudes forms semen. The semen then moves via the urethra and out of the penis.

Male fertility depends on the body making normal sperm and delivering them. The sperm travels into the vagina of the female partner. The sperm moves through the female’s cervix into her uterus and fallopian tubes. Fertilization takes place when a sperm and an egg meet. [1, 2]

Male Infertility Causes

Making mature, healthy sperm that can travel is based on several things. Difficulties can stop the cells from growing into the sperm and also keep the sperm from reaching the egg. Even the temperature of the scrotum may influence male fertility. [1]

Here are the leading causes of male infertility:

  • Azoospermia: The inability to generate sperm cells can factor into infertility.
  • Oligospermia: The production of low-quality sperm.
  • Varicoceles: This is a disorder where the testicles’ veins are more extensive than usual. This causes them to overheat, which might alter the type or quantity of sperm they produce.
  • Examples of genetic diseases include Klinefelter’s syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, microdeletion, and others.
  • Sperm is unhealthy and won’t live long enough to fertilize the egg.
  • Medical conditions include diabetes, autoimmune diseases, cystic fibrosis, and infections.
  • Some drugs and supplements.
  • Cancer treatments can involve testicular removal surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy (one or both).
  • Unhealthy habits include the use of alcohol, tobacco, and narcotics.
  • A testicular trauma.
  • Infertility may be affected by hormonal problems that affect the brain or pituitary glands. [1, 2, 4]

What Determines the Health of Sperm?

Several variables, such as quantity, mobility, and structure, influence sperm health.

  • Quantity: Fertility is likely if at least 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen is released after a single ejaculation (ejaculate). It may be more difficult having a pregnancy if there is insufficient sperm in an ejaculation because there will be fewer sperm accessible to fertilize the egg.
  • Movement: Sperm must travel to meet an egg and fertilize it. It must wriggle and swim via a female’s cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes. Motility is a term for this. Ejaculation occurs if the quantity of sperm is less than 40%, yet 40% is enough to get a pregnancy; more is always good.
  • Structure (morphology): Roundheads and long tails of typical sperm cooperate in propelling them. Compared to sperm volume or motility, this has a lesser effect. [1, 4]

What Hinders Men’s Sperm Production?

Male reproductive troubles can result from several medical conditions, such as:

  • A dysfunction in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, two regions of the brain that control the production of testosterone and sperm in the testicles (secondary hypogonadism)
  • A testicular condition
  • Abnormalities of sperm transport
  • Age can also be a factor. Age tends to alter sperm mobility and quantity, affecting fertility, particularly after age 50. [1, 2, 4]

How Can one Best Create Healthy Sperm?

Several simple techniques to raise the likelihood of producing healthy sperm include:

  • Keep a Healthy Weight: Sperm motility and count are known to decline when body mass index (BMI) rises.
  • Eat a Balanced Diet: A variety of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables are selected, which is helpful to increase the health of the sperm.
  • Avoid Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs): Men may experience infertility due to STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea. STIs can be avoided by maintaining a mutually monogamous relationship with the partner who is uninfected, reducing the number of sexual partners (protected sex), and always using a condom during sexual activity.
  • Management of Stress: Stress can affect the hormones needed to produce sperm and impede sexual performance.
  • Be Active: Strong antioxidant enzyme levels can rise with moderate exercise, helping to protect sperm. [1, 3, 4]

Facts To Know:

Medical Conditions that can Result in Male Infertility:
Various medical conditions, including renal disease and testicular cancer, can cause male infertility. Even typical illnesses, fevers, metabolic conditions, and “whole-body” health concerns could obstruct sperm growth. Diseases spread through intercourse can leave the reproductive tract with blocks and scars. Genetic conditions like cystic fibrosis, which inhibits sperm from developing in the semen, might result in the absence of the vas deferens or seminal vesicles. Infertility is a result of numerous disorders.

Faulty Sperm or Semen Analyses are not Always Responsible Result in Birth Abnormalities in Children:
Not always. The likelihood of conceiving a child with a birth abnormality is comparable to most couples using reproductive treatment. Some issues, primarily hereditary ones that lead to infertility, may also increase the likelihood of having a child with birth abnormalities. Therefore, before starting some ARTs, couples need thorough examinations and guidance.

Taking Steroids to Increase Muscle Lead Can To Infertility:
The body may stop producing the hormones required to produce sperm when using oral or injectable steroids.

Smoking has an Impact on Sperm Production:
According to research, routine smoking has a variety of effects on sperm. Their DNA becomes damaged. Smoking may also have an impact on the sperm-filled seminal fluid ejaculated. [2, 4]

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References:

  1. https://www.urologyhealth.org/urology-a-z/m/male-infertility
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/getting-pregnant/in-depth/fertility/art-20047584#:~:text=Fertility%20is%20most%20likely%20if,available%20to%20fertilize%20the%20egg.
  3. https://www.cilexin.com/
  4. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17201-male-infertility

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